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Throughout the years, valued members of the scientific community have contributed to the resonance of Espansione technologies such as Light Modulation® LLLT and Optimal Power Energy® IPL by publishing a vast array of research and scientific, peer-reviewed papers.

Anterior Segment Bibliography
  1. D'SOUZA, Sharon, et al. Clinical and Molecular Outcomes After Combined Intense Pulsed Light Therapy With Low-Level Light Therapy in Recalcitrant Evaporative Dry Eye Disease With Meibomian Gland Dysfunction. Cornea, 2021.
  2. GIANNACCARE, Giuseppe, et al. Low-Level Light Therapy Versus Intense Pulsed Light for the Treatment of Meibomian Gland Dysfunction: Preliminary Results From a Prospective Randomized Comparative Study. Cornea, 2022.
  3. SOLOMOS, Leonidas, et al. Meibomian Gland Dysfunction: Intense Pulsed Light Therapy in Combination with Low-Level Light Therapy as Rescue Treatment. Medicina, 2021, 57.6: 619.
  4. STONECIPHER, Karl; POTVIN, Richard. Low level light therapy for the treatment of recalcitrant chalazia: a sample case summary. Clinical Ophthalmology (Auckland, NZ), 2019, 13: 1727.
  5. STONECIPHER, Karl, et al. Combined low level light therapy and intense pulsed light therapy for the treatment of meibomian gland dysfunction. Clinical Ophthalmology (Auckland, NZ), 2019, 13: 993.
  6. DI MARINO, Matteo, et al. Combined Low-Level Light Therapy and Intense Pulsed Light Therapy for the Treatment of Dry Eye in Patients with Sjögren’s Syndrome. Journal of ophthalmology, 2021, 2021.
  7. MARTA, Ana, et al. Intense Pulsed Plus Low-Level Light Therapy in Meibomian Gland Dysfunction. Clinical Ophthalmology (Auckland, NZ), 2021, 15: 2803.
  8. PÉREZ-SILGUERO, Miguel Angel, et al. Combined Intense Pulsed Light and Low-Level Light Therapy for the Treatment of Dry Eye: A Retrospective Before–After Study with One-Year Follow-Up. Clinical Ophthalmology (Auckland, NZ), 2021, 15: 2133.
  9. PULT, Heiko; WOLFFSOHN, James S. The development and evaluation of the new Ocular Surface Disease Index-6. The Ocular Surface, 2019, 17.4: 817-821.
  10. PULT, Heiko. Low-level light therapy in the treatment of meibomian gland dysfunction. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 2020, 61.7: 99-99.
  11. EL SHAMI, M., et al. Optimized combined low level light therapy and intense pulsed light therapy for the treatment of dry eye syndrome caused by Meibomian glands dysfunction. Journal Français d'Ophtalmologie, 2022.
  12. BORGIA, Alfredo, et al. Device-based therapies as a boost of conventional treatment in dry eye disease. Expert Review of Ophthalmology, 2022, just-accepted.
  13. RIVERA, José Y. Arteaga, et al. Combined Intense Pulsed Light and Low Level Light Therapy Vs. Oral Azithromycin for the treatment of moderate to severe hypersecretory meibomian gland disfunction. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 2022, 63.7: 1966–A0296-1966–A0296.
  14. GIANNACCARE, Giuseppe et al. “Serial Sessions of a Novel Low-Level Light Therapy Device for Home Treatment of Dry Eye Disease.” Ophthalmology and therapy, 10.1007/s40123-022-00619-3. 9 Dec. 2022, doi:10.1007/s40123-022-00619-3
  15. AVCI, Pinar, et al. Low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) in skin: stimulating, healing, restoring. In: Seminars in cutaneous medicine and surgery. NIH Public Access, 2013. p. 41.
  16. GOO, Hyeyoon, et al. Effects of low-level light therapy at 740 nm on dry eye disease in vivo. Medical Lasers; Engineering, Basic Research, and Clinical Application, 2019
  17. MARQUES, João Heitor, et al. Low-Level Light Therapy in Association with Intense Pulsed Light for Meibomian Gland Dysfunction. Clinical Ophthalmology, 2022, 4003-4010.
  18. SHETTY, Rohit, D'SOUZA, Sharon, et al. A randomized controlled study evaluating outcomes of IPL and LLLT for treating MGD and evaporative DED. Indian Journal of Ophthalmology, 2023
  19. BENYOUSSEF, A.-A.; ARZEL, F.; COCHENER, B. 3-month post-procedural evaluation of a combined intense pulsed light and photo-biomodulation system in the treatment of meibomian gland dysfunction. Journal Français d'Ophtalmologie, 2023.
  20. MEDURI, Alessandro, et al. Combined intense pulsed light and low-level light therapy for the treatment of refractory Meibomian gland dysfunction. European Journal of Ophthalmology, 2023, 33.2: 728-734.
  21. CASTRO, Catarina, et al. Comparison of Light-Based Devices in the Treatment of Meibomian Gland Dysfunction. The Cureus Journal of Medical Science, 2023.
  22. GIANNACCARE, Giuseppe, ROSSI, Costanza, BORSELLI, Marco et al. Outcomes of low-level light therapy before and after cataract surgery for the prophylaxis of postoperative dry eye. The British Journal of Ophthalmology. 2023.
  23. CAYATOPA, FS, et al (2023) Low Level Light Therapy plus Compression of Meibomian Glands for the Treatment of Evaporative Dry Eye. The Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology. 2023.
  24. CANNAS C, et al. Current Applications and Future Perspectives of Photobiomodulation in Ocular Diseases. Applied Sciences. 2024

A number of other scientific articles, on numerous journals, have been published on Espansione technology.

  1. STONECIPHER, Karl, et al. Dry-eye Management Before Surgery, Review Of Ophthalmology, 2018.
  2. STONECIPHER, Karl, et al. Low-Level Light Therapy LLLT as an Adjunct Treatment For Meibomian Glands Dysfunction (MGD), Acta Scientific Ophthalmology, 2020.
  3. STONECIPHER, Karl; MATOSSIAN, Cynthia. What’s Meibomian Gland Disease Got in Store for the Future?, Ophthalmology Management, 2020.
  4. STONECIPHER, Karl. Low-Level Light Therapy, CRSTEurope, June 2021.
  5. STONECIPHER, Karl, et al. Current treatments for Meibomian Gland Dysfunction and Eye Lid Margin Disease, Acta Scientific Ophthalmology, 2021.
  6. CRAIG, Thomas. Understanding Photobiomodulation Therapy, Modern Optometry, 2021.
  7. ARZEL, Florian. Treatment of meibomian dysfunction by pulsed light and photo-biomodulation, Les Chaiers, 2021.
  8. FARRANT, Sarah. Eye-Light Intense Pulsed Light and Low-Level Light Therapy Fantastic, Optician Online, 2021.
  9. FARRANT, Sarah. Case Reviews in Dry Eye Management, Optician Clinical, 2021.
  10. KENIA, Vishal, et al. Effectiveness of eye-light therapy in improving dry eye symptoms, Indian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, 2021.
  11. AMBROZIAK, Anna, et al. Blue Light Mask in Meibomian Glands Dysfunction with Demodicosis, Warsaw Ophthalmology Clinic, 2020.
  12. AMBROZIAK, Anna, et al. Combined Intense Pulsed Light and Low-Level Light Therapy for the Treatment of Ocular Surface Diseases (OSD): 2 Years Eye-Light Experience, Warsaw Ophthalmology Clinic, 2020.
  13. AMBROZIAK, Anna. New Treatments of Dry Eye Syndrome, Optyka, 2019.
  14. KARPECKI, Paul. Shed Some Light on Dry Eye Disease (DED), Review of Optometry, 2019.
  15. PULT, Heiko. Skin Temperature Measurement After Intense Pulsed Light and Application, Kontaktlinse, 2020.
  16. BURATTO, Lucio. Dry Eye in Patients with Clinical History of Blepharitis and Chalaziosis, Eye Doctor, 2018.
  17. MARINI, Leonardo, et al. Using LED Photobiomodulation to Treat Premature Ageing. Prime Journal, 2013.
  18. KARPECKI, Paul. Light Therapy Which Is Better, Review of Optometry, 2021.
  19. FARRANT, Sarah. Dry Eye and Saponification, Optician Clinical, 2023.
  20. GIANNACCARE, Giuseppe. Serial Sessions Novel LLLT Device. Eye Doctor [Italian]
  21. FARRANT, Sarah. The Ocular Microbiome, Optician Clinical, 2023
  22. GHELLER, Pietro et. al. Contact Lens Discomfort (CLD) Treatment with MY MASK Light Modulation® LED mask
  23. PELLEGRINI, Marco et. al. Nationwide pharmacy‐based dry eye disease screening analysis of cross-sectional data from 8259 individuals, Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, 2023

Finally, a non-comprehensive overview of cross-referenced scientific papers featuring Intense Power Light (IPL) and Low-Level Light Therapy (LLLT).


  1. BUCH, John; HAMMOND, Billy. Photobiomodulation of the visual system and human health. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 2020, 21.21.8020.
  2. CHUNG, Hoon, et al. The nuts and bolts of low-level laser (light) therapy. Annals of biomedical engineering, 2012, 40- 516-533.
  3. DOMPE, Claudia, et al. Photobiomodulation—underlying mechanism and clinical applications. Journal of clinical medicine, 2020, 9.6. 1724.
  4. FARIVAR, Shirin; MALEKSHAHABI, Talieh; SHIARI, Reza. Biological effects of low level laser therapy. Journal of lasers in medical sciences, 2014, 5.2- 58.
  5. HAMBLIN, Michael R. Mechanisms and applications of the anti-inflammatory effects of photobiomodulation. AIMS biophysics, 2017, 4.3- 337.
  6. HUANG, Ying-Ying, et al. Biphasic dose response in low level light therapy. Dose-response, 2009, 7.4- dose-response. 09-027.
  7. HUANG, Ying-Ying, et al. Biphasic dose response in low level light therapy–an update. Dose-response, 2011, 9.4- dose-response. 11-009.
  8. ROJAS, Julio C.; GONZALEZ-LIMA, F. Low-level light therapy of the eye and brain. Eye and brain, 2011, 49-67.
Posterior Segment Bibliography


  1. AGE-RELATED EYE DISEASE STUDY 2 (AREDS2) RESEARCH GROUP, et al. Lutein+ zeaxanthin and omega-3 fatty acids for age-related macular degeneration- the Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) randomized clinical trial. Jama, 2013, 309.19- 2005-2015.
  2. ALBARRACIN, Rizalyn; EELLS, Janis; VALTER, Krisztina. Photobiomodulation protects the retina from light-induced photoreceptor degeneration. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, 2011, 52.6- 3582-3592.
  3. AO, Jack, et al. Safety profile of slit-lampdelivered retinal laser photobiomodulation. Translational Vision Science & Technology, 2020, 9.4. 22-22.
  4. BEGUM, Rana, et al. Treatment with 670 nm light up regulates cytochrome C oxidase expression and reduces inflammation in an age-related macular degeneration model. PloS one, 2013, 8.2. e57828.
  5. BENLAHBIB, Manal, et al. Photobiomodulation therapy for large soft drusen and drusenoid pigment epithelial detachment in age-related macular degeneration: a single-center prospective pilot study. RETINA, 2022, 10.1097.
  6. BOYER et al. LIGHSITE III: 13-Month Efficacy and Safety Evaluation of Multiwavelength Photobiomodulation in Nonexudative (Dry) Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Retina. 2024 Mar.
  7. BURTON, Ben, et al. LIGHTSITE II Randomized Multicenter Trial, Evaluation of Multiwavelength Photobiomodulation in Non-exudative AgeRelated Macular Degeneration. Ophthalmology and therapy, 2023, 1-16
  8. C TEDFORD et al - Improvement of visual function following photobiomodulation ARVO 2021
  9. CANNAS, C. Current Applications and Future Perspectives of Photobiomodulation in Ocular Diseases: A Narrative Review. Appl. Sci. 2024, 14, 2623
  10. DE FREITAS, Lucas Freitas; HAMBLIN, Michael R. Proposed mechanisms of photobiomodulation or low-level light therapy. IEEE Journal of selected topics in quantum electronics, 2016, 22.3.348- 364.
  11. FANTAGUZZI, F. Shedding Light on Photobiomodulation Therapy for Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Narrative Review. Ophthalmol Ther 12, 2903–2915 (2023).
  12. FRANCESCHELLI et al. Short-term effects of extremely low irradiance photobiomodulation on retinal function, in age related macular degeneration Eur J Ophthalmol. 2024 Mar
  13. GENEVA II. Photobiomodulation for the treatment of retinal diseases: a review. Int J Ophthalmol. 2016
  14. GREWAL, Manjot K., et al. A pilot study evaluating the effects of 670 nm photobiomodulation in healthy ageing and agerelated macular degeneration. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 2020, 9.4. 1001.
  15. GOO, H. Multi-Wavelength Photobiomodulation Ameliorates Sodium Iodate-Induced Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Rats. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24, 17394
  16. IVANDIC, Boris T.; IVANDIC, Tomislav. Low-level laser therapy improves vision in patients with age-related macular degeneration. Photomedicine and laser surgery, 2008, 26.3. 241-245
  17. KAYMAK, HAKAN; SCHWAHN, HARTMUT. Photobiomodulation as a treatment in dry AMD. Retina Today. May-June Special Edition, 2020.
  18. KOKKINOPOULOS, Ioannis, et al. Age-related retinal inflammation is reduced by 670 nm light via increased mitochondrial membrane potential. Neurobiology of aging, 2013, 34.2: 602-609.
  19. MARKOWITZ, Samuel N., et al. A double-masked, randomized, sham-controlled, single-center study with photobiomodulation for the treatment of dry age-related macular degeneration. Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.), 2020, 40.8. 1471.
  20. MERRY, Graham F., et al. Photobiomodulation reduces drusen volume and improves visual acuity and contrast sensitivity in dry age-related macular degeneration. Acta ophthalmologica, 2017, 95.4. e270-e277.
  21. MERRY, Graham, M. B. B. S., et al. Treatment of dry Age-related Macular Degeneration with Photobiomodulation.
  22. MUSTE, Justin C., et al. Photobiomodulation therapy in age-related macular degeneration. Current Opinion in Ophthalmology, 2021, 32.3: 225-232.
  23. MUSTE, Justin C.; RUSSELL, Matthew W.; SINGH, Rishi P. Photobiomodulation therapy for age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy, a review. Clinical Ophthalmology, 2021, 3709-3720.
  24. MUNK MR. Photobiomodulation in age-related macular degeneration. Retin Physician. 2022;19:36–39.3
  25. RUBNER, Rhianna; LI, Kang V.; CANTO-SOLER, M. Valeria. Progress of clinical therapies for dry age-related macular degeneration. International Journal of Ophthalmology, 2022, 15.1. 157.
  26. SAMANTA, Anindya, et al. Emerging therapies in nonexudative age-related macular degeneration in 2020. The Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology, 2021, 10.4- 408-416
  27. SHINHMAR, Harpreet, et al. Optically improved mitochondrial function redeems aged human visual decline. The Journals of Gerontology. Series A, 2020, 75.9. e49-e52.
  28. SIQUEIRA, Rubens Camargo, et al. ShortTerm Results of Photobiomodulation Using Light-Emitting Diode Light of 670 nm in Eyes with Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Photobiomodulation, Photomedicine, and Laser Surgery, 2021, 39.9: 581-586.
  29. SIVAPATHASUNTHARAM, Chrishne, et al. Aging retinal function is improved by near infrared light (670 nm) that is associated with corrected mitochondrial decline. Neurobiology of Aging, 2017, 52, 66-70.
  30. WONG, Wan Ling, et al. Global prevalence of agerelated macular degeneration and disease burden projection for 2020 and 2040- a systematic review and meta-analysis. The Lancet Global Health, 2014, 2.2- e106-e116.
  31. ZHANG, Chun-Xia, et al. Considerations for the Use of Photobiomodulation in the Treatment of Retinal Diseases. Biomolecules, 2022, 12.12. 1811.
  32. ZHU, Qin, et al. Near infrared (NIR) light therapy of eye diseases A review. International journal of medical sciences, 2021, 18.1, 109


  1. CALBIAGUE GARCÍA, Víctor, et al. Evaluation of Photobiomodulation and Boldine as Alternative Treatment Options in Two Diabetic Retinopathy Models. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 2023, 24.9.7918.
  2. GOPALAKRISHNAN, Sandeep, et al. Photobiomodulation preserves mitochondrial redox state and is retinoprotective in a rodent model of retinitis pigmentosa. Scientific Reports, 2020, 10.1- 1-13.
  3. LE, Hoang Mai, et al. Effects of Photobiomodulation in Patients Presenting with Reticular Pseudodrusen. A Retrospective Observational Case Series Study. Medicina, 2022, 58.11. 1662
  4. MEYER-BOTHLING, Ulrich; MEYER-BOTHLING, Oliver; PINNEY, Marika. A Real-World SingleCentre Study of Patients with Diabetic Macular Oedema Who Wore a Home-Use Sleep Mask (Noctura 400) for One Year. Journal of Ophthalmology, 2021, 2021.
  5. SCALINCI, Sergio Zaccaria, et al. Effects of photo-biomodulation in Stargardt disease. Clinical Ophthalmology, 2022, 85-91.
  6. TANG, Johnny; HERDA, Ashley A.; KERN, Timothy S. Photobiomodulation in the treatment of patients with non-center-involving diabetic macular oedema. British Journal of Ophthalmology, 2014, 98.8- 1013-1015.
  7. WONG-RILEY, Margaret TT, et al. Photobiomodulation directly benefits primary neurons functionally inactivated by toxins, role of cytochrome c oxidase. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 2005, 280.6. 4761-4771
  8. KIM JE. A Randomized Trial of Photobiomodulation Therapy for Center-Involved Diabetic Macular Edema with Good Visual Acuity (Protocol AE). Ophthalmol Retina. 2022 Apr.
  9. CHENG Y. Photobiomodulation Inhibits Long-term Structural and Functional Lesions of Diabetic Retinopathy. Diabetes. 2018 Feb;67(2):291-298. doi: 10.2337/db17-0803. Epub 2017 Nov 22.
Dermatology & Trichology Bibliography
  1. Using photobiomodulation to treat premature aging - Leonardo Marini, MD et al – Prime Journal, 2013
  2. Low Level Laser Therapy or LLLT or photobiomodulation in the therapy of dry eye and eyelid ectropion – Romina Fasciani, MD, Francesco Boselli, MD – EyeDoctor, 2022
  3. Combined Low Level Light Therapy and Intense Pulsed Light Therapy for the treatment of dry eye in patients with Sjogren’s Syndrome - Mateo Di Marino, MD et al Hindawi Journal of Ophthalmology, 2021
  4. Light on a new treatment for dry eye disease and post-blepharoplasty – M. Pinto MD, et al - Topcon Symposium, Paris 2018
  5. Tricobiolight: A new, effective protocol in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia and telogen effluvium – Domenicao Piccolo MD et al – Dermatologic Therapy, 2021
  6. Improvement of skin texture - P. Mezzana MD - High and Low intensity lights and multidrugs biostimulation Laser Med Sci DOI 10.1007/ s10103-007-0456-8 Feb. 2007
  7. Decrease of periorbital wrinkles depth - Dr. Cavagna - Dermocosmesi integrata 2011
  8. The role of photobiostimulation in the treatment of male and female androgenetic alopecia: preliminary results on the use of an innovative equipment - Valeriani MD, Mezzana MD 2010
  9. Face Photorejuvenation with young again® technology - A. Luverà MD, M.T. Luverà MD, E. Cervadoro MD, G. Cervadoro MD. - AMWC 2012 – Montecarlo
  10. Photorejuvenation and PDT by a new LED technique at close distance - C. Canci MD, P. Mezzana MD U.S.I. - Unione Sanitaria Internazionale Clinic Marco Polo - Rome 2012
  11. Predominatly non-thermal facial skin photorejuvenation using a sequentially combined CW-PW facial mask - L. Marini MD Trieste, Krunic MD University of Illinois, Chicago AMWC 2012 – Montecarlo
  12. young again® - LED it be, biostimolazione eudermica natural - Dr. R. Cavagna - Parma LNE March 2011
  13. young again® Technology - Dr. P. Mezzana - AMWC April 2010 – Montecarlo
  14. Mithocondrial signal transduction in accelerated wound and retinal healing by near-infrared light therapy - Janis T. Eells, Margaret T.T. Wong- Riley, James VerHoeve, Michele Henry, Mary V. Buchman, Mary P. Kane, Lisa J. Gould, Rina Das, Marti Jett, Brian D. Hodgson, David Margolis, Harry T. Whelan – Mitochondrion 4 (2004) 559- 567
  15. Near Infrared (NIR) transfacial led therapy ( Light Modulation®) an new adjuvant treatment in post-surgical and chronic periodontal patients – Giovanni Mauro MD, Pierluigi Casella DDS IDS 2015
  16. Photobiostimulation with infrared led light (Light Modulation® technology) as an adjunctive therapy in maintenance recall: a preliminary study Marisa Roncati, B.S., R.D.H.; D.D.S. IDS 2015
  17. Effect of NASA Light-Emitting Diode Irradiation on Wound healing - Robert L. Smits Jr. M.D, et al. - Journal of Clinical Laser Medicine & Surgery, 2001Efficacy and safety of monochromatic phototherapy in patients with gingivitis - Lena Persson DDS, et al
  18. Photodynamic inactivation of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis biofilms in vitro - Cristiane Aparecida Pereira, et al
  19. Multi light and drugs: a new technique to treat photo-aging – Paolo Mezzana, MD
  20. Photobiostimulation (PBS) with Infrared LED light (E-LIGHT® D technology) as an adjuntive therapy in chronic peridontitis: A preliminary study - Giovanni Mauro, MD, AMWC Montecarlo 2014
  21. New perspectives in photobiomodulation – Maria Teresa Luverà, MD – AMWC Montecarlo, 2014
  22. Low intensity lights and bio-mimetic peptides: a new technology to prevent and treat photoaging – P. Mezzana, MD, C. Canci, MD – AMWC Montecarlo, 2014
  23. A new PDT technique in Actinic Keratosis treatment and in NMSC ( Non Melanoma Skin Cancer) prevention – P. Mezzana MD, C. Canci,MD – AMWC Montecarlo 2013
  24. Acne treated with young again® technology – M.T. Luverà, MD, A. Luverà, MD - AMWC Montecarlo 2013
  25. Face photorejuvenation with EPI-C® MED – young again® technology – A. Luverà, MD, E. Cervadoro, MD, G. Cervadoro MD- AMWC Montecarlo, 2012
  26. Predominantly non-thermal skin photeorejuvenation using a sequentially combined CW-PW near infrared 840nm-880nm facial mask – Leonardo Marini, SDC – AMWC Montecarlo, 2012
  27. Photorejuvenation by PDT through a new LED 624nm technique – young again® technology- EPI-C® MED device – P. Mezzana, MD, C. Canci, MD - AMWC 2012
  28. young again® project – Cellular vitality & longevity – Roberto cavagna, MD - AMWC Montecarlo, 2011
  29. young again® technology- Introduction – P. Mezzana, MD – AMWC Montecarlo, 2010
  30. Low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) in skin: stimulating, healing, restoring - Pinar Avci, MD et al. 2013
  31. Regulation of Skin Collagen Metabolism In Vitro Using a Pulsed 660nm LED Light Source: Clinical Correlation with a Single-Blinded Study - Daniel Barolet et al. 2009
  32. Comparison of the effects of 2 frequencies of application of PBM on facial rejuvenation. Controlled, randomized, and double-blind clinical trial - Erick Frank Bragato et al. 2022
  33. Observation of an improved healing process in superficial skin wounds after irradiation with a blue-LED hemostatic device - Riccardo Cicchi et al. 2016
  34. Role of Photo-Biomodulation Therapy in Facial Rejuvenation and Facial Plastic Surgery - Jose A. De Cordova, MD, FRCS. 2021
  35. Efficacy of low-level laser therapy on scar tissue - Carla P. Freitas, Cristina Melo, Ana M. Alexandrino & Andreia Noites. 2013
  36. Photobiomodulation: A Systematic Review of the Oncologic Safety of Low-Level Light Therapy for Aesthetic Skin Rejuvenation - Graeme Ewan Glass, PhD, FRCS. 2023
  37. Combination blue (415 nm) and red (633 nm) LED phototherapy in the treatment of mild to severe acne vulgaris - David J. Goldberg & Bruce A. Russell. 2016
  38. Editorial: Photobiomodulation and phototherapy in skin diseases - Michael R. Hamblin, Xiang Wen and Bingrong Zhou. 2024
  39. Unlocking the Power of Light on the Skin: A Comprehensive Review on photobiomodulation - Maria Luisa Hernández-Bule et al. 2024
  40. Light-Emitting Diodes in Dermatology: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials - Jared Jagdeo, MD et al. 2018
  41. Acne phototherapy with a high-intensity, enhanced, narrow band, blue light source: an open study and in vitro investigation - Akira Kawada et al. - Journal of Dermatological Science. 2002
  42. Use of light-emitting diode photomodulation to reduce erythema and discomfort after intense pulsed light treatment of photodamage - Jane G Khoury, MD, & Mitchel P Goldman, MD - Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology 2008
  43. Exploring the Safety and Efficacy of Organic Light-Emitting Diode in Skin Rejuvenation and Wound Healing - Young in Lee et al. - YMJ 2023
  44. Blue and Red-Light Combination LED Phototherapy for Acne Vulgaris in Patients with Skin Phototype IV - Seung Yoon Lee, MD, et al. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine 2007
  45. Experimental Study on Blue Light Interaction with Human Keloid-Derived Fibroblasts - Giada Magni et al. - Biomedicines 2020
  46. Photobiomodulation Using Amber Led and Infrared Laser to Controlling the Pigmentation and Flaccidity from Skin - Priscila Fernanda Campos Menezes et al.- Journal of Aesthetic & Reconstructive Surgery 2020
  47. An open study to determine the efficacy of blue light in the treatment of mild to moderate acne - C. A. Morton et al. Journal of Dermatological Treatment 2005.
  48. Photobiomodulation Therapy for Wound Care: A Potent, Noninvasive, Photoceutical Approach - Rodrigo Crespo Mosca, PhD, DDS, MSc et al. - Advances In Skin & Wound Care 2019
  49. Photobiomodulation as an Adjunct Therapy in Wound Healing - Harikrishna K. R. Nair, MD et al. The International Journal of Lower Extremity Wounds 2021.
  50. The Efficacy and Safety of 660 nm and 411 to 777 nm Light-Emitting Devices for Treating Wrinkles - Chan Hee Nam, MD et al. Dermatol Surg 2017
  51. The Effect of Red Light-Emitting Diode at 633 Nanometers on Skin Wrinkles - Kullarat Nanachai and Punyaphat Sirithanabadeekul. RSU International Research Conference 2023
  52. Photobiomodulation with Non-Thermal Lasers: Mechanisms of Action and Therapeutic Uses in Dermatology and Aesthetic Medicine - Dr. Mark Nestor et al. Journal of Cosmetic and Laser Therapy 2017
  53. Photobiomodulation with Blue Light on Wound Healing: A Scoping Review - Thais P. Prado et al - Life 2023.
  54. Photobiomodulation of Human Fibroblasts and Keratinocytes with Blue Light: Implications in Wound Healing - Francesca Rossi et al. - Biomedicines 2021
  55. Low-level light therapy (LLLT) for cosmetics and dermatology - Mossum K Sawhney, Michael R. Hamblin. 2014
  56. Clinical Trial of a Novel Non-Thermal LED Array for Reversal of Photoaging: Clinical, Histologic, and Surface Profilometric Results - Robert A. Weiss, MD et al. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine 2005
  57. Human and animal cells under influence of different lighting and stimulus - Eric Almeida Xavier et al. - GSC Advanced Research and Reviews, 2024
  58. Non-invasive diagnostic evaluation of phototherapeutic effects of red light phototherapy of acne vulgaris - Cristina Zane et al. 2008
  59. Facial Aesthetic Laser-Assisted Protocol for the Management of Acne and Pigmentation: A Case Report - Nancy Zeaiter et al. Cureus 2022
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