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Throughout the years, valued members of the scientific community have contributed to the resonance of Espansione technologies such as Light Modulation® LLLT and Optimal Power Energy® IPL by publishing a vast array of research and scientific, peer-reviewed papers.

  1. D'SOUZA, Sharon, et al. Clinical and Molecular Outcomes After Combined Intense Pulsed Light Therapy With Low-Level Light Therapy in Recalcitrant Evaporative Dry Eye Disease With Meibomian Gland Dysfunction. Cornea, 2021.
  2. GIANNACCARE, Giuseppe, et al. Low-Level Light Therapy Versus Intense Pulsed Light for the Treatment of Meibomian Gland Dysfunction: Preliminary Results From a Prospective Randomized Comparative Study. Cornea, 2022.
  3. SOLOMOS, Leonidas, et al. Meibomian Gland Dysfunction: Intense Pulsed Light Therapy in Combination with Low-Level Light Therapy as Rescue Treatment. Medicina, 2021, 57.6: 619.
  4. STONECIPHER, Karl; POTVIN, Richard. Low level light therapy for the treatment of recalcitrant chalazia: a sample case summary. Clinical Ophthalmology (Auckland, NZ), 2019, 13: 1727.
  5. STONECIPHER, Karl, et al. Combined low level light therapy and intense pulsed light therapy for the treatment of meibomian gland dysfunction. Clinical Ophthalmology (Auckland, NZ), 2019, 13: 993.
  6. DI MARINO, Matteo, et al. Combined Low-Level Light Therapy and Intense Pulsed Light Therapy for the Treatment of Dry Eye in Patients with Sjögren’s Syndrome. Journal of ophthalmology, 2021, 2021.
  7. MARTA, Ana, et al. Intense Pulsed Plus Low-Level Light Therapy in Meibomian Gland Dysfunction. Clinical Ophthalmology (Auckland, NZ), 2021, 15: 2803.
  8. PÉREZ-SILGUERO, Miguel Angel, et al. Combined Intense Pulsed Light and Low-Level Light Therapy for the Treatment of Dry Eye: A Retrospective Before–After Study with One-Year Follow-Up. Clinical Ophthalmology (Auckland, NZ), 2021, 15: 2133.
  9. PULT, Heiko; WOLFFSOHN, James S. The development and evaluation of the new Ocular Surface Disease Index-6. The Ocular Surface, 2019, 17.4: 817-821.
  10. PULT, Heiko. Low-level light therapy in the treatment of meibomian gland dysfunction. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 2020, 61.7: 99-99.
  11. EL SHAMI, M., et al. Optimized combined low level light therapy and intense pulsed light therapy for the treatment of dry eye syndrome caused by Meibomian glands dysfunction. Journal Français d'Ophtalmologie, 2022.
  12. BORGIA, Alfredo, et al. Device-based therapies as a boost of conventional treatment in dry eye disease. Expert Review of Ophthalmology, 2022, just-accepted.
  13. RIVERA, José Y. Arteaga, et al. Combined Intense Pulsed Light and Low Level Light Therapy Vs. Oral Azithromycin for the treatment of moderate to severe hypersecretory meibomian gland disfunction. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 2022, 63.7: 1966–A0296-1966–A0296.
  14. GIANNACCARE, Giuseppe et al. “Serial Sessions of a Novel Low-Level Light Therapy Device for Home Treatment of Dry Eye Disease.” Ophthalmology and therapy, 10.1007/s40123-022-00619-3. 9 Dec. 2022, doi:10.1007/s40123-022-00619-3
  15. AVCI, Pinar, et al. Low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) in skin: stimulating, healing, restoring. In: Seminars in cutaneous medicine and surgery. NIH Public Access, 2013. p. 41.
  16. GOO, Hyeyoon, et al. Effects of low-level light therapy at 740 nm on dry eye disease in vivo. Medical Lasers; Engineering, Basic Research, and Clinical Application, 2019
  17. MARQUES, João Heitor, et al. Low-Level Light Therapy in Association with Intense Pulsed Light for Meibomian Gland Dysfunction. Clinical Ophthalmology, 2022, 4003-4010.
  18. SHETTY, Rohit, D'SOUZA, Sharon, et al. A randomized controlled study evaluating outcomes of IPL and LLLT for treating MGD and evaporative DED. Indian Journal of Ophthalmology, 2023
  19. BENYOUSSEF, A.-A.; ARZEL, F.; COCHENER, B. 3-month post-procedural evaluation of a combined intense pulsed light and photo-biomodulation system in the treatment of meibomian gland dysfunction. Journal Français d'Ophtalmologie, 2023.
  20. MEDURI, Alessandro, et al. Combined intense pulsed light and low-level light therapy for the treatment of refractory Meibomian gland dysfunction. European Journal of Ophthalmology, 2023, 33.2: 728-734.
  21. CASTRO, Catarina, et al. Comparison of Light-Based Devices in the Treatment of Meibomian Gland Dysfunction. The Cureus Journal of Medical Science, 2023.
  22. GIANNACCARE, Giuseppe, ROSSI, Costanza, BORSELLI, Marco et al. Outcomes of low-level light therapy before and after cataract surgery for the prophylaxis of postoperative dry eye. The British Journal of Ophthalmology. 2023.
  23. CAYATOPA, FS, et al (2023) Low Level Light Therapy plus Compression of Meibomian Glands for the Treatment of Evaporative Dry Eye. The Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology. 2023.
  24. CANNAS C, et al. Current Applications and Future Perspectives of Photobiomodulation in Ocular Diseases. Applied Sciences. 2024

A number of other scientific articles, on numerous journals, have been published on Espansione technology.

  1. STONECIPHER, Karl, et al. Dry-eye Management Before Surgery, Review Of Ophthalmology, 2018.
  2. STONECIPHER, Karl, et al. Low-Level Light Therapy LLLT as an Adjunct Treatment For Meibomian Glands Dysfunction (MGD), Acta Scientific Ophthalmology, 2020.
  3. STONECIPHER, Karl; MATOSSIAN, Cynthia. What’s Meibomian Gland Disease Got in Store for the Future?, Ophthalmology Management, 2020.
  4. STONECIPHER, Karl. Low-Level Light Therapy, CRSTEurope, June 2021.
  5. STONECIPHER, Karl, et al. Current treatments for Meibomian Gland Dysfunction and Eye Lid Margin Disease, Acta Scientific Ophthalmology, 2021.
  6. CRAIG, Thomas. Understanding Photobiomodulation Therapy, Modern Optometry, 2021.
  7. ARZEL, Florian. Treatment of meibomian dysfunction by pulsed light and photo-biomodulation, Les Chaiers, 2021.
  8. FARRANT, Sarah. Eye-Light Intense Pulsed Light and Low-Level Light Therapy Fantastic, Optician Online, 2021.
  9. FARRANT, Sarah. Case Reviews in Dry Eye Management, Optician Clinical, 2021.
  10. KENIA, Vishal, et al. Effectiveness of eye-light therapy in improving dry eye symptoms, Indian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, 2021.
  11. AMBROZIAK, Anna, et al. Blue Light Mask in Meibomian Glands Dysfunction with Demodicosis, Warsaw Ophthalmology Clinic, 2020.
  12. AMBROZIAK, Anna, et al. Combined Intense Pulsed Light and Low-Level Light Therapy for the Treatment of Ocular Surface Diseases (OSD): 2 Years Eye-Light Experience, Warsaw Ophthalmology Clinic, 2020.
  13. AMBROZIAK, Anna. New Treatments of Dry Eye Syndrome, Optyka, 2019.
  14. KARPECKI, Paul. Shed Some Light on Dry Eye Disease (DED), Review of Optometry, 2019.
  15. PULT, Heiko. Skin Temperature Measurement After Intense Pulsed Light and Application, Kontaktlinse, 2020.
  16. BURATTO, Lucio. Dry Eye in Patients with Clinical History of Blepharitis and Chalaziosis, Eye Doctor, 2018.
  17. MARINI, Leonardo, et al. Using LED Photobiomodulation to Treat Premature Ageing. Prime Journal, 2013.
  18. KARPECKI, Paul. Light Therapy Which Is Better, Review of Optometry, 2021.
  19. FARRANT, Sarah. Dry Eye and Saponification, Optician Clinical, 2023.
  20. GIANNACCARE, Giuseppe. Serial Sessions Novel LLLT Device. Eye Doctor [Italian]
  21. FARRANT, Sarah. The Ocular Microbiome, Optician Clinical, 2023
  22. GHELLER, Pietro et. al. Contact Lens Discomfort (CLD) Treatment with MY MASK Light Modulation® LED mask
  23. PELLEGRINI, Marco et. al. Nationwide pharmacy‐based dry eye disease screening analysis of cross-sectional data from 8259 individuals, Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, 2023

Finally, a non-comprehensive overview of cross-referenced scientific papers featuring Intense Power Light (IPL) and Low-Level Light Therapy (LLLT).


  1. BUCH, John; HAMMOND, Billy. Photobiomodulation of the visual system and human health. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 2020, 21.21.8020.
  2. CHUNG, Hoon, et al. The nuts and bolts of low-level laser (light) therapy. Annals of biomedical engineering, 2012, 40- 516-533.
  3. DOMPE, Claudia, et al. Photobiomodulation—underlying mechanism and clinical applications. Journal of clinical medicine, 2020, 9.6. 1724.
  4. FARIVAR, Shirin; MALEKSHAHABI, Talieh; SHIARI, Reza. Biological effects of low level laser therapy. Journal of lasers in medical sciences, 2014, 5.2- 58.
  5. HAMBLIN, Michael R. Mechanisms and applications of the anti-inflammatory effects of photobiomodulation. AIMS biophysics, 2017, 4.3- 337.
  6. HUANG, Ying-Ying, et al. Biphasic dose response in low level light therapy. Dose-response, 2009, 7.4- dose-response. 09-027.
  7. HUANG, Ying-Ying, et al. Biphasic dose response in low level light therapy–an update. Dose-response, 2011, 9.4- dose-response. 11-009.
  8. ROJAS, Julio C.; GONZALEZ-LIMA, F. Low-level light therapy of the eye and brain. Eye and brain, 2011, 49-67.


  1. AGE-RELATED EYE DISEASE STUDY 2 (AREDS2) RESEARCH GROUP, et al. Lutein+ zeaxanthin and omega-3 fatty acids for age-related macular degeneration- the Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) randomized clinical trial. Jama, 2013, 309.19- 2005-2015.
  2. ALBARRACIN, Rizalyn; EELLS, Janis; VALTER, Krisztina. Photobiomodulation protects the retina from light-induced photoreceptor degeneration. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, 2011, 52.6- 3582-3592.
  3. AO, Jack, et al. Safety profile of slit-lamp-delivered retinal laser photobiomodulation. Translational Vision Science & Technology, 2020, 9.4. 22-22.
  4. BEGUM, Rana, et al. Treatment with 670 nm light up regulates cytochrome C oxidase expression and reduces inflammation in an age-related macular degeneration model. PloS one, 2013, 8.2. e57828.
  5. BENLAHBIB, Manal, et al. Photobiomodulation therapy for large soft drusen and drusenoid pigment epithelial detachment in age-related macular degeneration: a single-center prospective pilot study. RETINA, 2022, 10.1097.
  6. BURTON, Ben, et al. LIGHTSITE II Randomized Multicenter Trial, Evaluation of Multiwavelength Photobiomodulation in Non-exudative Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Ophthalmology and therapy, 2023, 1-16
  7. C Tedford et al - Improvement of visual function following photobiomodulation with the Valeda ARVO 2021
  8. DE FREITAS, Lucas Freitas; HAMBLIN, Michael R. Proposed mechanisms of photobiomodulation or low-level light therapy. IEEE Journal of selected topics in quantum electronics, 2016, 22.3.348-364.
  9. GREWAL, Manjot K., et al. A pilot study evaluating the effects of 670 nm photobiomodulation in healthy ageing and age-related macular degeneration. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 2020, 9.4. 1001.
  10. IVANDIC, Boris T.; IVANDIC, Tomislav. Low-level laser therapy improves vision in patients with age-related macular degeneration. Photomedicine and laser surgery, 2008, 26.3. 241-245
  11. KAYMAK, HAKAN; SCHWAHN, HARTMUT. Photobiomodulation as a treatment in dry AMD. Retina Today. May-June Special Edition, 2020.
  12. KOKKINOPOULOS, Ioannis, et al. Age-related retinal inflammation is reduced by 670 nm light via increased mitochondrial membrane potential. Neurobiology of aging, 2013, 34.2: 602-609.
  13. MARKOWITZ, Samuel N., et al. A double-masked, randomized, sham-controlled, single-center study with photobiomodulation for the treatment of dry age-related macular degeneration. Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.), 2020, 40.8. 1471.
  14. MERRY, Graham F., et al. Photobiomodulation reduces drusen volume and improves visual acuity and contrast sensitivity in dry age‐related macular degeneration. Acta ophthalmologica, 2017, 95.4. e270-e277.
  15. Merry, Graham, M. B. B. S., et al. Treatment of dry Age-related Macular Degeneration with Photobiomodulation.
  16. MUSTE, Justin C., et al. Photobiomodulation therapy in age-related macular degeneration. Current Opinion in Ophthalmology, 2021, 32.3: 225-232.
  17. MUSTE, Justin C.; RUSSELL, Matthew W.; SINGH, Rishi P. Photobiomodulation therapy for age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy, a review. Clinical Ophthalmology, 2021, 3709-3720.
  18. RUBNER, Rhianna; LI, Kang V.; CANTO-SOLER, M. Valeria. Progress of clinical therapies for dry age-related macular degeneration. International Journal of Ophthalmology, 2022, 15.1. 157.
  19. SAMANTA, Anindya, et al. Emerging therapies in nonexudative age-related macular degeneration in 2020. The Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology, 2021, 10.4- 408-416
  20. SHINHMAR, Harpreet, et al. Optically improved mitochondrial function redeems aged human visual decline. The Journals of Gerontology.  Series A, 2020, 75.9. e49-e52.
  21. SIQUEIRA, Rubens Camargo, et al. Short-Term Results of Photobiomodulation Using Light-Emitting Diode Light of 670 nm in Eyes with Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Photobiomodulation, Photomedicine, and Laser Surgery, 2021, 39.9: 581-586.
  22. SIVAPATHASUNTHARAM, Chrishne, et al. Aging retinal function is improved by near infrared light (670 nm) that is associated with corrected mitochondrial decline. Neurobiology of Aging, 2017, 52, 66-70.
  23. WONG, Wan Ling, et al. Global prevalence of age-related macular degeneration and disease burden projection for 2020 and 2040- a systematic review and meta-analysis. The Lancet Global Health, 2014, 2.2- e106-e116.
  24. ZHANG, Chun-Xia, et al. Considerations for the Use of Photobiomodulation in the Treatment of Retinal Diseases. Biomolecules, 2022, 12.12. 1811.
  25. ZHU, Qin, et al. Near infrared (NIR) light therapy of eye diseases A review. International journal of medical sciences, 2021, 18.1, 109.


  1. CALBIAGUE GARCÍA, Víctor, et al. Evaluation of Photobiomodulation and Boldine as Alternative Treatment Options in Two Diabetic Retinopathy Models. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 2023, 24.9.7918.
  2. GOPALAKRISHNAN, Sandeep, et al. Photobiomodulation preserves mitochondrial redox state and is retinoprotective in a rodent model of retinitis pigmentosa. Scientific Reports, 2020, 10.1- 1-13.
  3. LE, Hoang Mai, et al. Effects of Photobiomodulation in Patients Presenting with Reticular Pseudodrusen. A Retrospective Observational Case Series Study. Medicina, 2022, 58.11. 1662
  4. MEYER-BOTHLING, Ulrich; MEYER-BOTHLING, Oliver; PINNEY, Marika. A Real-World Single-Centre Study of Patients with Diabetic Macular Oedema Who Wore a Home-Use Sleep Mask (Noctura 400) for One Year. Journal of Ophthalmology, 2021, 2021.
  5. SCALINCI, Sergio Zaccaria, et al. Effects of photo-biomodulation in Stargardt disease. Clinical Ophthalmology, 2022, 85-91.
  6. TANG, Johnny; HERDA, Ashley A.; KERN, Timothy S. Photobiomodulation in the treatment of patients with non-center-involving diabetic macular oedema. British Journal of Ophthalmology, 2014, 98.8- 1013-1015.
  7. WONG-RILEY, Margaret TT, et al. Photobiomodulation directly benefits primary neurons functionally inactivated by toxins, role of cytochrome c oxidase. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 2005, 280.6. 4761-4771.


  1. VORA, Gargi K.; GUPTA, Preeya K. Intense pulsed light therapy for the treatment of evaporative dry eye disease. Current opinion in ophthalmology, 2015, 26.4: 314-318.
  2. CRAIG, Jennifer P.; CHEN, Yen-Heng; TURNBULL, Philip RK. Prospective trial of intense pulsed light for the treatment of meibomian gland dysfunction. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, 2015, 56.3: 1965-1970.
  3. TOYOS, Rolando; MCGILL, William; BRISCOE, Dustin. Intense pulsed light treatment for dry eye disease due to meibomian gland dysfunction; a 3-year retrospective study. Photomedicine and laser surgery, 2015, 33.1: 41-46.
  4. SANTANA-BLANK, Luis, et al. “Quantum leap” in photobiomodulation therapy ushers in a new generation of light-based treatments for cancer and other complex diseases: perspective and mini-review. Photomedicine and laser surgery, 2016, 34.3: 93-101.
  5. AVCI, Pinar, et al. Low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) in skin: stimulating, healing, restoring. In: Seminars in cutaneous medicine and surgery. NIH Public Access, 2013. p. 41.
  6. MORI, Asako, et al. Disposable eyelid-warming device for the treatment of meibomian gland dysfunction. Japanese journal of ophthalmology, 2003, 47.6: 578-586.
  7. OHSHIRO, Toshio, et al. The possibility of the application of low reactive level laser therapy in the field of ophthalmology. Laser Therapy, 2007, 16.4: 189-197.
  8. KOEV, K. Aplication of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in patients with Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP). Acta Ophthalmologica, 2015, 93.
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